Strategies to Reduce Bias in User Interview Research

Conducting unbiased research is a fundamental aspect of UX design. Yet, acknowledging and mitigating our own biases can be challenging. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore common biases that may surface during user interviews and provide practical strategies to overcome them. By understanding and addressing these biases, you’ll be better equipped to gather authentic user perspectives and create designs that truly meet their needs.

Confirmation Bias

What is Confirmation Bias? Confirmation bias is the inclination to favor information that aligns with our pre-existing beliefs or hypotheses. It often leads us to seek evidence that supports our assumptions, potentially overlooking crucial insights.

How to Combat Confirmation Bias:

  • Recruit an Appropriate Sample Size: In usability studies, gathering feedback from five to eight participants is typically sufficient to yield valuable insights. Going beyond this number may result in diminishing returns and reinforce preconceived notions.
  • Embrace Challenging Findings: Be open to feedback that contradicts your assumptions. Such feedback can lead to deeper exploration and uncover new insights, ultimately enhancing your designs.

Example: Imagine you’re designing a fitness app and assume that users primarily use it for tracking workouts. However, user interviews reveal that many users rely on it for dietary guidance. Embracing this feedback can lead to a more holistic app design.

Leading Questions

What are Leading Questions? Leading questions are designed to guide participants towards specific responses, potentially skewing their genuine opinions. They can influence participants to provide answers that align with the researcher’s expectations.

How to Avoid Leading Questions:

  • Encourage Thinking Aloud: Request that participants share their thoughts as they interact with a product. This ensures that responses are based on their actual experiences rather than guided by the researcher.
  • Limit Personal Responses: Avoid offering personal opinions during interviews. Neutral feedback fosters an environment where participants feel free to express their true preferences.

Example: Instead of asking, “Did you find the blue tab easy to locate the product you wanted to buy?” opt for the more open-ended, “How did you locate the product you wanted to buy?” This allows participants to share their genuine experiences.

Friendliness Bias

What is Friendliness Bias? Friendliness bias occurs when participants agree with the researcher or interviewer to maintain a pleasant conversation. This bias can lead to insincere or overly positive feedback.

How to Overcome Friendliness Bias:

  • Prioritize Honesty: Set clear expectations with participants that their honest feedback is essential for improving the product, and that critical insights are just as valuable as positive ones.
  • Consistent Engagement: Maintain consistent levels of curiosity and active listening throughout the interview, regardless of whether the feedback is positive or negative.

Example: If participants feel that you only react positively to certain responses, they may provide feedback that aligns with your reactions rather than their true opinions.

Social Desirability Bias

What is Social Desirability Bias? Social desirability bias occurs when participants respond in a manner they believe will be viewed favorably by others. They may emphasize positive aspects and downplay negatives to conform to perceived social norms.

How to Tackle Social Desirability Bias:

  • Conduct 1:1 Interviews: Group settings can amplify social desirability bias, as participants may conform to the views of others. Individual interviews allow authentic opinions to surface.
  • Ensure Confidentiality: Assure participants that their perspectives will remain confidential, alleviating concerns about negative feedback becoming public.

Example: In group interviews, participants might hesitate to express concerns about a product if they perceive others as satisfied. Individual interviews provide a more accurate reflection of individual opinions.

Hawthorne Effect

What is the Hawthorne Effect? The Hawthorne Effect describes how people alter their behavior when they know they are being observed. In research settings, participants may perform differently due to awareness of being watched.

How to Address the Hawthorne Effect:

  • Create a Comfortable Environment: Encourage participants to feel at ease by emphasizing that there are no right or wrong answers. Allow time for them to acclimate to the research environment.
  • Establish Rapport: Build a personal connection with participants through the use of their names and engaging in small talk before diving into the research.

Example: Participants might become self-conscious or overly cautious when they know their actions are being recorded. Creating a non-threatening environment can alleviate this effect.


As a budding UX designer, recognizing and addressing biases in your research is essential for obtaining accurate and actionable insights. By proactively tackling confirmation bias, avoiding leading questions, combating friendliness bias, countering social desirability bias, and mitigating the Hawthorne Effect, you’ll be better equipped to create designs that genuinely serve your users’ needs. Remember, your ultimate goal is to design products that align with users’ authentic perspectives, and overcoming biases is a crucial step in achieving that objective.